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Wreck Report for 'Mohegan', 1898

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Unique ID:17514
Description:BOT Wreck Report for 'Mohegan', 1898
Creator:Board of Trade
Date:1898
Copyright:Out of copyright
Partner:SCC Libraries
Partner ID:Unknown

Transcription

(No. 5803.)

"MOHEGAN" (S.S.).

The Merchant Shipping Act, 1894.

IN the matter of a formal investigation held at the Guildhall, Westminster, on the 10th and 11th, 24th and 25th, and at the Town Hall, Westminster, on the 12th and 26th days of November, 1898, before R. H. B. MARSHAM, Esq., assisted by Captain RONALDSON, Mr. HALLETT, C.E., and Captain DYER, R.N., into the circumstances attending the stranding and total loss of the British s.s. "MOHEGAN," on the Manacle Rocks, near the Lizard, on the 14th of October last, whereby loss of life ensued.

Report of Court.

The Court having carefully inquired into the circum-cumstances attending the above-mentioned shipping casualty, finds for the reasons stated in the Annex hereto, that the cause of the stranding of the vessel was in their opinion, that a wrong course—W. by N.—was steered after passing the Eddystone, at 4.17 p.m., on the 14th October last, and that the deplorable loss of so many lives was in consequence of the vessel taking a very sudden and serious list to port, of her going down in not more than a quarter of an hour from the time of striking, and of there being no light to indicate her position through the electric light having gone out.

Dated this 30th day of November, 1898.

R. H. B. MARSHAM, Judge.

We concur in the above report.

 

A. RONALDSON,

 

 

J. H. HALLETT, C.E.,

Assessors.

 

RICHD. C. DYER,

 

Annex to the Report.

This inquiry was held at the Guildhall, Westminster, on the 10th and 11th November, at the Town Hall, Westminster, on the 12th November, at the Guildhall, Westminster, on the 24th and 25th November, and was concluded at the Town Hall, Westminster, on the 26th November, 1898.

Mr. H. R. Mansel Jones, with whom was Mr. Butler Aspinall, appeared on behalf of the Board of Trade; Mr. Pyke, with whom was Mr. Arthur Pritchard, represented the owners of the "Mohegan," the Atlantic Transport Company, Limited, and the representatives of the officers not represented by Mr. Nelson : Mr. Nelson appeared on behalf of the representatives of the master and third officer of the vessel; whilst Mr. Charles Cunninghame Graham, of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, represented it.

The "Mohegan," late "Cleopatra," official number 109,043, was a steel screw steamship, built by Messrs. Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Limited, at Hull, for Messrs. Thomas Wilson & Company, Limited, of Hull, but before she was launched she was purchased by the Atlantic Transport Steamship Company, Limited, of London, on the 29th July, 1898, along with some other vessels from Messrs. Wilson & Leyland, with the goodwill of their New York trade; Mr. Alfred Strover Williams, of 108, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C., being the designated manager, and she was registered at the port of Hull.

Her dimensions were: length, 482.4 ft.; breadth, 52.1 ft.; depth from top of beam amidships to top of keel, 35.7 ft. She had four steel masts. She was fitted with triple expansion vertical direct acting engines, built by Messrs. Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Limited; she had three cylinders of the following dimensions: 32 ins., 54 ins., and 90 ins., with a stroke of 66 ins. She had four boilers, built of steel, which were loaded with working pressure of 200 lbs. per square inch; with an indicated horse power of 5,500, her speed would be 14 knots. She was lighted throughout by electricity; for this purpose she was fitted with duplicate sets of dynamos, each of which was compound wound, and were capable of an output of 300 amperes at 100 volts, the motive power being a double acting compound engine, built and supplied by Messrs. Belliss & Company, Limited, of Birmingham. Each of these dynamos were capable of lighting the whole of the ship's installation, in case of breakdown.

The wiring was on the latest double wire distributing box system. She was fitted with the usual steam pumps to the main engines, and also a large centrifugal circulating pump, together with an auxiliary duplex pump, and an ordinary pump of large size; these were fitted so that they could be connected to each compartment, and each compartment could be pumped out either by steam or hand.

She had two steel decks below her upper-deck, which was of pine, and eight water-tight bulkheads extending from keel to the upper-deck, only one of which was pierced, and that one was fitted with a water-tight door on an approved plan.

On the upper-deck she had a shelter-deck for cattle, above this deck was an enclosed bridge extending the whole length of the engine and boiler space, somewhat aft and forward of them. This contained the state-room and passengers' accommodation. Over the bridge-deck was a large steel house containing the music-room, saloon, smoking-room and state-rooms; the top was extended as a deck to the ship's side, and formed the boat-deck. She had eight boats, six being lifeboats, built of steel, of the aggregate capacity of 2,343 cubic feet, and capable of accommodating 234 persons; and wooden boats of the aggregate capacity of 472 cubic feet, and capable of accommodating 59 persons. They were carried on davits fitted with falls and patent disengaging gear, inboard on chocks. She had 250 lifebelts and 12 life-buoys. She was constructed under Lloyds' special survey, and was registered 100 A1.

She had three compasses on deck, one—Lord Kelvin's patent—on the flying bridge, by which the courses were set and steered, one in the wheel-house, underneath the bridge, and one aft. She was steered by steam. She had only made one voyage, to New York and back.

Mr. Charles Henry Wilson, M.P., of the firm of Wilson, Sons & Company, of Hull, stated that his firm had entered into a contract with Messrs. Earle & Company for the building of the "Cleopatra," afterwards called the "Mohegan," and four other steamers; that she was built under special survey, and that she and the four other vessels were being built for the passenger trade between London and New York. Mr. Wilson was the chairman of the Hull firm, and also of the London company of Messrs. Furness, Wilson & Leyland.

During the late war the American Government purchased steamers of the Atlantic Transport Company, and it was to replace these that the Company purchased the five steamers that were being built. For the "Cleopatra " they paid £140,000. She was insured for £112,000 at Lloyds' and other offices, the owners taking £28,000 on her themselves.

Mr. F. H. Pearson, assistant general manager of Earle's Shipbuilding Company, put in a statement including the specification of the vessel, and stated that when she was in dock at Hull before leaving, all the boats were lowered into the water in the presence of the Board of Trade officials, and that it took—employing eight men—about five minutes to lower and rehoist them. A rail was built on the boat-deck for the purpose of preventing passengers falling overboard.

The steamship "Mohegan" when completed left Hull on the 29th July, 1898, for London, she was then named the "Cleopatra," that being her launching name. It is worthy of notice that this steamer left the port of Hull without ballast or cargo; she arrived at Tilbury on the 30th July at about 11.30 a.m.

On this passage, through the negligence of one of the engineers, an accident happened to the boilers, the engineer on watch allowing the water to become low in the port double-ended boiler; but, upon examination of the boiler in London, nothing was found wrong, and apparently no damage was done.

Having taken her passengers and cargo in, she proceeded on her maiden voyage to New York on the 31st July at 7.40 a.m. It appears that on this voyage they had considerable difficulty in feeding the boilers in consequence (as the Court was informed) of the engineers not understanding the feed pumps. She arrived at New York on the 12th August, after a passage of 12 days.

Upon the owners being communicated with, and the condition of the boilers made known to them, they wired instructions to their agents at New York that owing to the unsatisfactory state of the boilers no passengers were to be taken on board for the return voyage. The instructions being carried out she left New York on the 15th August, arriving in London on the 4th September, thus being 20 days coming across.

The boilers having giving a deal of trouble, both from priming and leaking, during the passage, on arrival in London a survey was called, and instructions given to Messrs. Rait & Gardiner to carry out the necessary repairs.

These repairs having been effected to the satisfaction of the surveyors, on 5th of October the vessel was taken to sea for the purpose of a trial trip under full steam. She had on board. on this occasion, the Board of Trade surveyor, Lloyds' surveyor, the owners' representative, and others, and also Mr. Charles Chappelle, of Messrs. Hughes & Sons, of Fenchurch Street, for the purpose of adjusting the compasses whilst at sea, and he stated that there was little or no deviation on westerly courses. The Court was informed that everything having proved satisfactory the vessel returned to London. Whilst in dock all the boats were lifted for the purpose of caulking the deck underneath them. She was placed on the berth for New York and it was upon this voyage that her name was changed to "Mohegan."

She left London on the 13th October under the command of Mr. R. Griffiths, who was the commodore of the Atlantic Transport Company's fleet, and who had been sent by the owners to superintend the finishing of the vessel before she was launched, and had made the previous voyage in her. She had a crew of 97 men, there were seven cattlemen on board, and 53 passengers were taken in at Gravesend.

Mr. D. Mulley, a licensed Trinity House pilot, took charge of her at 2.30 p.m., to conduct her to Dover, where he was landed at 7.55 p.m. He also stated that there was no deviation on westerly courses, and that when he left her everything appeared in good order.

She had a general cargo of 1,280 tons, consisting of spirits, beer, and antimony, 1,050 tons of bunker coal, 1,180 tons of water ballast, and the other ballast tank, which held 940 tons, was filled after leaving Dover; the total dead weight of cargo, coals, and water being 4,450 tons. She was drawing 20 ft. 8 ins. mean draft, and had a freeboard of 13 ft. 8 ins.

All seems to have gone well, and at 2.40 p.m. of the 14th, at Prawle Point, she signalled "All well. Report me." She was then about three miles off.

She was afterwards seen by the signalman at Rame Head, Mr. Joseph Burnfield, who stated that at the time there were passing rain showers and a moderate gale. She was abeam of Rame Head about 3.40 p.m., less than ten miles off. He last saw her about 5 p.m., some 10 or 12 miles from the Eddystone lighthouse.

Mr. Charles Robert Snell, boatman of the coastguard stationed at Falmouth, stated that at about 7 p.m. he noticed a coloured light ascend, but did not see any more, and he did not regard it as a signal of distress; his patrol connection, at the Stack, also saw the light. On the way back he saw several more coloured lights in the direction of the Manacles, and when he arrived at Falmouth he reported it to his chief officer; this was about 8.45 p.m. He was then ordered to the telephone station, and at 9.30 he received a message from Porthoustock asking for the lifeboat and tug to be sent. He sent warning by signal to the coxswain of the lifeboat and the owner of the tug to get the crew and lifeboat ready.

Mr. Fooks, Collector of Customs and Receiver of Wreck at Falmouth, said that on that evening between 6 and 7 p.m., whilst walking with his daughter round Pendennis Castle towards Pendennis Point he noticed some lights to the southward of St. Anthony's lighthouse; upon looking carefully he noticed that one was a pilot boat light, but further away from the shore he saw a bright light, which he took to be a steamer's masthead light. It appeared to him, as he described it, a bunch of lights, one overhead and some below;' the steamer looked as though she were making for Falmouth harbour. A short time afterwards he looked at her again, and then observed she was going across the harbour, as if she were making for Helford river. Passing round the bay, on his way home, he saw the vessel nearly the whole time, his view being obscured for a short space of time only as he passed some trees. He then noticed that the vessel had altered her course to the south, and appeared to be turning round to go up Channel. At this time he could see the masthead light and the lights aft. He stated that it passed through his mind that the vessel was going on the Manacles. At 6.50 p.m., when he last saw the steamer, he remarked to his daughter, "She is going all right now;" she was then about seven miles distant. He said it was a clear night for seeing lights.

Mr. James Hill, coxswain of the lifeboat at Port houstock, stated that at a little before seven he was standing by his stable-door when he saw a masthead light bearing N.E. from him, and thought it was the Irish boat coming out of Falmouth harbour. She appeared to be coming stem on to him, and only some half mile off. She altered her course because, as he believed, she saw the shore lights. He saw she was in danger; this was about 7 p.m. He summoned his crew by signal, as some of them lived some distance off, and at 7.25 p.m. they had the lifeboat afloat and on the way to the Manacle rocks. The tide was about 1 1/2 hours ebb. He burnt a white light, but received no response. Shortly after they fell in with some wreckage, which was found to be an overturned boat, with two men on her bottom; these were rescued, and cries were heard from beneath the boat. With considerable difficulty the boat was righted, and two ladies, one of whom was Mrs. Compton Swift—who gave the Court a lucid account of her experiences—and a child, who was then dead, were found and rescued.

The witness then burnt three red lights, as a signal that more help was required. Hearing more cries he pulled in the direction they proceeded from, and met with a ship's lifeboat with 24 persons in her. This boat was very much damaged and nearly full of water; had the occupants tried to land in her all would probably have perished. He transferred them to his boat and took them ashore, where he landed them at about 10 p.m. Having got a fresh supply of lights he went out again and pulled in the direction of the Manacle rocks. Hearing shrieks and cries he anchored as near the wreck as he could with safety. Quartermaster Juddery, who was in the mizzen rigging, seeing the boat could not approach any nearer to the wreck, owing to the heavy tide, swam off to the lifeboat, and, taking a line, swam back again to the rigging, and through this prompt, brave action, materially helped to save the whole of the people in the rigging. The anchor was then lifted and the boat allowed to drop down so as to enable them to take off the rest of the people who were in the other rigging, and on the funnel. The rocks all around were searched, but no other persons were found, and they stayed there, burning lights at intervals, till reaching the shore, between 4 and 5 a.m.

It is most unfortunate that there was no light displayed to indicate the position of the steamer, this being solely due to the electric light having gone out. Had a light been visible, the Court agrees with the assertion of the lifeboat people, that probably more lives would have been saved. So much time was lost in consequence of the position of the wreck not being located.

Mr. Charles John May, boatman of the coastguard stationed at Coverack, being on duty at 6 p.m., saw a steamer's masthead and port light a little to the N., and eastward of his station. He reported it to his chetf officer, as he thought the vessel was too close to the Manacle rocks. He lost sight of her for about five minutes, and when he saw her again she had turned round; when he first saw her he thought she was heading for Falmouth; when she was coming out he thought she was in a dangerous position. He fired a rocket to warn her, and, lighting his blue light, he stuck it in the ground; he gave the alarm to the villagers and summoned the rocket brigade, who immediately started off in the direction of the Manacles. On the way he saw three rockets fired from the wreck; when they reached there the chief officer gave him directions to proceed to Porthoustock to take charge of the telephone, and to get all the information he could as to the wreck. He then sent a message to Cadgwith, as follows: "Inform district officer and collector of Customs supposed wreck on the Manacles." This message was repeated to Falmouth about 8.45 p.m. The Porthoustock lifeboat had gone out before he arrived at this station. Signals from the lifeboat for more help were reported to him, and he immediately sent instructions to Falmouth for them to send their lifeboat and tug. When the Porthoustock lifeboat came back he assisted the people that were saved; most of them were very exhausted, and had life-belts on. He helped them into the fishermen's cottages, and he was also present when this lifeboat came back with the remaining survivors. After this he went along the beach and picked up four dead bodies; three of these had life-belts on. About midnight he found a wooden boat near the Lowland Point; this was all broken to pieces and quite unseaworthy. He afterwards found four or five steel lifeboats, these were dented but one only had a hole in it, and they all could have been rendered seaworthy. The whole of the channel where the wreck was is a regular wasp's nest of rocks.

Mr. A. J. Jeffrey, chief officer of the coastguard at Coverack, stated that the last witness called his attention to the "Mohegan"; he soon lost sight of her and thought she had gone into Falmouth. About ten minutes after this he heard a rocket fired. He went to the telephone and heard that the Porthoustock lifeboat was telephoned for. From there he went to the rocket-house, and found the rocket apparatus had already left and the lamps lighted. He followed it, but on reaching Manacle Point he could see nothing. He ordered two signal rockets to be fired off, and sent a boatman towards the Lowland Point, with a blue light, which he was to show if he discovered the wreck; this man picked up three persons on the rocks. He reached Manacles Point at 8.30 p.m., and there heard that a lifeboat had brought off some people from the wreck. He then fired some more rockets as a signal to any people who might still be on the waters, and also as a signal to the lifeboat he saw down to leeward.

About midnight, finding that the rocket apparatus was of no further use, he sent it back to the station, and remained at the Point until next day, giving instructions to the men, sending some round the coast with lamps. He stated that had he known the vessel was on the main rocks he could not have done any good with the rocket apparatus, as it would not reach that spot. He saw three red lights from the lifeboat, but did not know that it was a signal for more help. This witness also confirmed Mr. Charles John May as to the condition of the steel lifeboats, and the condition of the broken wooden boat.

Mr. Francis Jose, coxswain of the Falmouth lifeboat, heard the mortar fired about 10 p.m. At 10.30 he got his lifeboat off, but in getting her into the water she slid too far, and it being low water she had to be hauled back that she might be turned round to get her into deep water. This delayed them about 10 minutes. The tug "Penguin" took her in tow, and proceeded in the direction of the Manacles. About midnight they fell in with the Cadgwith lifeboat, and were told that they—the Cadgwith lifeboat men—had seen nothing of the wreck. They then cast off from the tug, and rowed towards Porthoustock, as they could see lights there. He was informed that a steamer was on the Manacles, and proceeded back there. They picked up the dead body of a lady. They waited near the wreck till daylight, between 5 and 6 a.m., and could then plainly see the four masts and funnel. As they could do no further good they returned to Falmouth.

Mr. Benjamin Williams, master of the tug "Penguin," stated that he was called at 10 p.m., and ordered to tow the lifeboat; he was ready in half an hour, but had to wait ten minutes for the lifeboat. He confirmed the coxswain of the lifeboat regarding what transpired whilst towing her. After casting off the lifeboat he picked up a man, and the dead body of a boy; the man had a lifebeit on. He was of opinion that the Falmouth lifeboat could not have done any more.

Mr. Thomas Jane, coxswain of the Cadgwith lifeboat, received instructions to launch his boat at 10 p.m. In 12 minutes the boat was in the water, and they rowed towards the Manacles; they remained there pulling about all night, returning at 8 a.m. of the next day.

This witness was very strong in his expression of regret that his boat had not been called out when the Porthoustock lifeboat was summoned.

Mr. James Ross, chief officer of the coastguard stationed at the Lizard, stated that at about 7.23 p.m. he received information that a ship was on the Manacles; he immediately ordered a man to the telephone, and went himself to the. instrument in his office, but it was not until 9.37 p.m. that he had a message to send to Falmouth for their lifeboat and tug. He wired instructions and then saw the coxswain of the Lizard lifeboat. About an hour and three-quarters after this while he was speaking to the coxswain of the Lizard lifeboat, he received a message, "Go at once."

He at once communicated this to the Lizard lifeboat coxswain, who immediately summoned his crew, and the lifeboat was got into the water by midnight.

Mr. E. Matthews, coxswain of the Lizard lifeboat, stated that at about 11.20 p.m. he was instructed to get his lifeboat launched; he summoned his crew by means of the rocket, they being scattered about, and it took some little time to collect them. At about midnight the lifeboat was launched; owing to the ebb tide they could not proceed straight to the Manacles, but went away to the southward, and set sail to weather the Black Head; they reached the Manacles at about 2 a.m., and remained in the neighbourhood of the wreck until 4 p.m. They did not pick anyone up, and the coxswain was of opinion that everything possible had been done by the other lifeboats. As it was impossible for them to beat back against the flood tide, they proceeded to Falmouth. He stated that they were burning signals all the way up from Black Head. This witness expressed his regret that he had not been summoned earlier, as he felt sure that, had he started about 7.30 p.m., he might have been instrumental in saving some of the unfortunate people; but he also stated that he had never been summoned to the Manacles during the 33 years he had been coxswain of the Lizard lifeboat.

Lieutenant Keppel Foote, R.N., at present district Inspector to the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, stated that it was his duty to attend to the exercising of the lifeboats in the district. Falmouth, he stated, was a station that had not done much work, and he gave a description of the station. He pointed out that at dead low-water spring tide it was more difficult to launch the lifeboat, because she had to turn round at right angles at the foot of the slip. He also stated that he had attended a meeting convened by the Local Committee a few days before this deplorable casualty, and the conclusion the meeting arrived at was that to render the station capable of launching a boat at any moment a new site would have to be purchased, and that it would cost from £1,200 to £1,500, an expense he did not feel justified in recommending.

Mr. William Ferguson, auxiliary second engineer of the "Mohegan," who has been in the company's service for seven years, and has worked his way up from fifth engineer to his present position, was in charge of the engines with the fifth and sixth engineers on the night of the wreck. He went on duty at 6 p.m., the engines were working well, the pointer on the dial of the telegraph was standing at full speed, making 68 revolutions, with a pressure of steam of 197 lbs. At about 6.50 p.m. he was startled by a slight shock as if the cable were running out; simultaneously the telegraph rang stop which was accordingly done. Water poured into the stoke-hole in great volumes, lifting up the floor plates; he remained in the engine-room about half a minute called out to the men to ease all the valves; there was no explosion, but a slight noise was heard owing to the gauge glasses breaking. All hands rushed on deck from the engine-room and stoke-hole, and about three minutes after this all the lights went out. This was caused by the water rising to the dynamo and drowning it out, the water at this time being about 14 feet from the floor, proving how rapidly it was rising. Upon leaving the engine-room he rushed to his cabin and got a life-belt; from there he rushed to the lifeboat on the port side, which was filled with people. He saw it launched and leave the vessel's side, but did not see any officer in the boat, they being all busy trying to launch the other boats, the chief officer, having his coat and waistcoat off, not only giving instructions but assistance as well. He saw the fourth officer at this time discharge three rockets on the port side. The steamer was sinking rapidly, she having a list of about 45 degrees to port, and the waves were washing over the starboard side. He did not see any one washed overboard. He saw the captain on the bridge and heard him call out to the men to hurry up with the boats. When the steamer went down he was standing by the side of one of the starboard lifeboats, was taken down with it, and remained under water about half a minute. When he got free he found himself amongst a lot of wreckage, which made it very hard to swim; he could see the masts and funnel above water, and, as he could not swim to shore, he turned round and swam to the funnel which he reached, and remained upon it until about 4 a.m., when he was taken off by the Porthoustock lifeboat. He was the only person on the funnel.

This witness described the cause of the electric light going out on the passage down channel. The mast-head and side lights were on a separate circuit to the lights used for the purpose of lighting the vessel, the latter being those that went out in consequence of the safety fuse going round. This took about five minutes to put right. The electrical installation was under his charge, and he stated that the wiring was well and carefully set up, the dynamos and engines were of the highest class and had given no trouble. This witness also stated that the main engines and boilers worked well till she struck, and this was confirmed by Mr. M. E. Gray, fourth engineer, and Mr. J. C. Smith, fifth engineer.

Mr. M. E. Gray, fourth engineer, stated that he was on watch at the time the ship struck; he heard the telegraph ring, and saw Mr. Ferguson stop the engines; he had charge of the boilers. He rushed on deck and heard one of the officers calling out "Now lads! remember the passengers, look out after the women and children first!" He went to the port lifeboat; the captain, who was on the bridge, called out "There are too many at that boat, spread yourselves." He jumped out and went to the next boat, this got jammed. He then went to the third boat and assisted to get it into the water. Having heard an order to go to the starboard boats, and whilst helping to get one out, he was washed overboard and the steamer at this moment went down. The sea washed him back to the mizzen-rigging into which he got, 14 or 16 other persons being there also. He stated that Quartermaster Juddery swam from the rigging to the lifeboat and then back with a line and attached it to the mast; by means of this brave action they were all taken off by the lifeboat. Everyone on the "Mohegan" behaved most cooly, the officers and crew were doing their best to get the boats out to save the passengers. The captain was directing the men from the bridge and the crew were doing their best to carry out the orders. This witness further stated that from the time he left the engine-room until the vessel sank it would be about 10 or 12 minutes.

Mr. J. C. Smith, fifth engineer, was on watch with the last two witnesses, and corroborates their statements. He stated that shortly before the vessel struck he was standing by the telegraph. When he came out of the engine-room he met the chief engineer, who asked what the telegraph was standing at, and, upon being told "stop," shouted to them to get the life-belts on. They did this, and he saw several of the passengers with lifebelts in their hands, and some of the crew were tying life-belts on to the passengers; he himself tied on two or three life-belts. He was at the after end of one of the starboard boats when she foundered; he swam from the vessel and got hold of a plank on which he remained until picked up by the lifeboat and he was landed with the others. He stated that he did not think anything else could have been done owing to the darkness, the position of the vessel, and the weather. The night was very dark, but clear over head. The officers and crew did all they could to save life.

Mr. Arthur Herbert Trevor, the ship's doctor, stated that he had been in her the previous voyage, and consequently knew the captain well. He always enjoyed good health, and there was nothing the matter with him; he was talking on the deck with him about one hour before the disaster. When the vessel struck he was at dinner in the saloon, the chief and fourth officers, the chief and one other engineer were also there; the captain, second and third officers were on the bridge. He felt a shock and heard a grinding, tearing sort of noise. The vessel suddenly took a list to starboard, sending everything off the table. He did not leave the saloon, as he thought it was his duty to stay with the ladies, some of whom were in a fainting condition. The fourth officer came down and told every one to get their life-belts on and go on the top deck; the stewards assisted the passengers in doing so, the latter being much more cool and collected than when the vessel first struck. He then went in search of Mrs. Lukes, who was ill, but could not find her. Then he went on deck and found the officers busily engaged with the boats, and heard the captain giving his orders in a clear and collected manner. The electric light went out when he got on the deck, and some 15 minutes after she struck the vessel foundered. He, together with 12 other men and the stewardess, Mrs. Pigott, had got into the mizzenrigging, and were rescued by the lifeboat.

This witness also corroborated the statement of Quartermaster Juddery's pluck in swimming off to the lifeboat.

Mr. John Cruickshank, who has been five years in the service of the Company, was in his berth when the vessel struck. He went on to the boat-deck, and the chief officer told him to get the boats clear—to cut the covers off, not to stop to unlace them. He went forward to get the men up, and saw the carpenter's mate, who told him he was ordered to sound the wells. He again went on to the boat-deck and assisted at the boats; the chief officer was then quite cool, and the captain was on the bridge giving orders. Some of the crew were at the port lifeboats; in consequence of the heavy list they could not get the starboard lifeboats out. The chief officer then ordered all the boat falls to be cut, the davits swung in, and everything cleared, that when the vessel went down they might float off from her. The steamer at this time had a list of 45 degrees to port, and was all down by the head, so that it was impossible to get to the lamp-room, which was in his charge, it being under water. Shortly before the vessel went down he went aft to cut ladders adrift, and the chief officer called out to all to get into the rigging.

Just previously the second officer shook hands with him, saying "Good-bye, we have done all we can." He then went aft to the taffrail. The vessel had such a list that the men were outside the rail and her starboard quarter stuck up like a spire; neither the chief nor second officers had life-belts on. When the vessel went down he was sucked down with her; when he came up he was struck by a bucket rack—he seized hold of it, and then got hold of a life-buoy; he saw the vessel's mast, which surprised him. He thought she had gone down on her beam-ends. He swam to the main-mast, where he remained until he was rescued, with the cook, by the lifeboat. He had heard the captain call out "Hurry up with the boats my lads! Keep cool."

Mr. John W. H. Juddery, quartermaster, who holds a first mate's certificate, stated that this was his first voyage in the "Mohegan"; that she was in a fit and good condition, and in every respect a very fine vessel. He was in the chief officer's watch, and on duty on the 14th October from 8 a.m. to noon; when at the wheel, from 10 a.m. to noon, the course was W. 3/4 N. He had received the course from Quartermaster Butt at 10 a.m., the chief officer standing by whilst the wheel was relieved in order to see that the right course was given, the company's orders being that an officer is always to be there at the reliefs. The same thing was done at noon when he was relieved. He came on deck at 4 p.m., at 4.3 he received orders to take the log and he reported 55 miles on it, and saw the Eddystone broad on the starboard bow. At 4.17 p.m. he was again told to take the log; it registered 57 3/4 miles, which he reported; the Eddystone was then abeam, distant about 2 3/4 miles to N. He did not notice the course being steered, her speed was about 12 3/4 knots. He then went into the chartroom to put the flags away as they had been used for signalling. The captain came into the chart-room and called the fourth officer from the bridge and questioned him as to the distance the vessel was off the Eddystone, to which he replied that he thought it was three miles. At 6 p.m. he went below; the wind was about half a gale from the S.E., clear generally, but with an appearance of dirty weather. Land was visible on the starboard side, high bold land. He saw Daniels in the crow's nest. About 6.30 he came on deck, but went below again and remained there until she struck. Upon coming on deck he found the men were carrying out the orders, to get out the boats, given by the captain who was on the flying bridge. All the officers were engaged with the lifeboats, and almost immediately the lights went out. The vessel had a list of about 45 degrees to port, and was all down by the head. He saw some of the stewards serving out life-belts to the passengers The port lifeboat was got away; the captain was on the bridge cheering on the men and telling them to keep cool. The list was gradually increasing, and he heard the captain calling, and on crawling towards him he found his orders were to get the women and children into the jigger-rigging; then the vessel took her final plunge. He swam to the mizzen-rigging; the doctor and 11 others were there; the steamer went down bodily, not by the head. Shortly before the vessel went down the chief officer shook hands with him and said, "Good bye! we've done all we can, look out for yourself."

On the arrival of the lifeboat the anchor was let go near them, and, seeing she could not come closer, he swam towards the funnel on account of the strong tide running, and eventually got to the lifeboat; having got a line he swam back with it, by which means they were all enabled to get to the lifeboat.

Frederick Butt, quartermaster, stated that he was at the wheel from 4 p.m. to 6 p.m., he relieved quartermaster Blake, who gave him the course of W. by N., the chief officer standing by in compliance with the Company's orders. He gave the distance of the Eddystone as three or four miles off. The chief officer looked repeatedly into the standard compass by which he was steering. The captain came up about 5 p.m. and looked at the compass, and had a conversation with the officers. At 6 p.m. he was relieved by quartermaster August, and he gave the course W. by N., in the presence of the second officer.

After the vessel struck they tried all they could to get the lifeboats out; he was knocked down by something falling from aloft, and a sea washed him along the deck. On recovering he got into the starboard lifeboat; the sea lifted her up and she was swamped. He swam to the mizzen-rigging, and when he got there he found one of his fingers hanging by the flesh. He was eventually taken off by the lifeboat.

Frank Nicklin, chief steward, stated that he was in the vessel on her previous voyage; there were 30 stewards and stewardesses under him. He assisted with the others in putting lifebelts on the passengers, and he also assisted in getting out one of the lifeboats. He spoke most highly of the captain and officers.

Mr. William Pollard, who holds an extra master's certificate, stated that he was third officer of the "Mohegan" on her previous voyage; he spoke most highly of Captain Griffiths. All the A.B.'s who were examined also spoke most highly of the captain; they said he was a strict disciplinarian, but they could not wish to sail with a better man.

Mrs. Compton Swift, one of the lady passengers who was fortunately saved, gave a very lucid account of her experience. She stated that she had made several voyages across the Atlantic before in the company's steamers, but never with Captain Griffiths. On the way down Channel, she remarked to her physician how close they were hugging the land.

On the evening of the casualty and just before she left the deck, at about 6.20 p.m., she noticed the land, it being about twilight. When sitting down to dinner, and on the point of turning her chair, she heard a crash; the chief engineer and the chief and fourth officers rushed on deck, followed by the passengers. One of the passengers, Mr. Kelly, told her the steamer was aground. Not feeling any alarm, she suggested to her doctor that they should go back and finish their dinner; when going below, they heard orders given to man the lifeboats, and, upon rushing to the stairway, the lights went out. At this time there was a heavy list to port. She heard the captain from the bridge give orders; she never at any time felt nervous. The lifeboat which had turned over was thrown out into the water, but as soon as it reached the water it righted itself. There would be, she stated, about 25 or more persons in the boat, of whom she was one; after she had been in the boat about two minutes, a wave struck it, and turned it bottom upwards. Putting up her hands, she thought she was under the bottom of the wreck, but upon realising her position she tried to extricate herself, but was unable to do so, as she was jammed between the thwart and the boat. When the boat was righted by the lifeboat men, one of them, by cutting away the wood with an axe, succeeded in getting her free; she never lost consciousness, and was taken ashore. There was another lady under the boat with her and a little child, which was dead. The lady subsequently died, and proved to be a Miss Roudebush.

Personally she felt perfectly sure that there was plenty of time for lowering the boats, and saving the passengers. She saw the captain on the bridge, and saw him washed overboard. She did not see any other officer on the bridge.

Miss Katharine Noble, one of the fortunate survivors of the disaster, said that she sat at the captain's table, and next to him. He only came down to dinner on the first night. On the afternoon of the 14th she was on deck; she did not notice the land, although she remained on deck until 6.15 p.m. She heard a crash and rushed on deck being the first passenger to reach it. She was told to keep calm as the ship had grazed something; the crew were all rushing to the boats, and she heard some one shout, "Get out the boats!" She returned to the cabin to get some wraps, and when she again reached the deck she was horrified to find that no boats were launched; the crew were going from one boat to another. Eventually she stepped over the rail to a boat and got in; she heard the captain call out, "Hurry with the boats!" and asked the men why they could not get them out. The men complained that the boats were too full, and the people were ordered to get out, but the crew were then unable to get the boats out. The waves at this time were washing over the vessel. The fourth officer came along and tried to get her into the rigging, but, the seas washing over, prevented her doing so. He then told her to get behind one of the lifeboats. The fourth officer then went to the assistance of some other of the lady passengers; immediately after she was washed overboard and seized hold of some wreckage. She had a life-belt on, the fourth officer had not; he was clinging to a hatch close by her for nearly an hour, then a wave washed him away. She was ultimately rescued by the lifeboat and taken on shore. In her judgment she was sure the officers and crew did all they could to save the passengers.

Mr. George L. Dashwood, banker, of Fleet Street London, stated to the Court that he was a passenger on the first voyage of the "Mohegan"—then known as the "Cleopatra"—on her first voyage to New York, and that the engines and boilers broke down on several occasions on the voyage. He did not remember any boat drill being carried out. He returned home in the same company's steamer, "Victoria," the sister ship of the "Mohegan;" this steamer overtook the "Cleopatra" when about five days out, and arrived home some time before her.

The captain and officers being all drowned, the Court is utterly unable to arrive at any conclusion as to why the course W. by N. was set and steered. They can only suggest that it was done inadvertently by the captain, and from over-confidence on his part he did not discover the mistake in time to avert the calamity.

The Court desires to throw out that if one of the officers have a strong opinion that a wrong course is being steered, it becomes his duty to bring the matter to the attention of the master, and the master's duty to examine into the question. The Court, in conclusion, wishes to express its deep sympathy with the relatives and friends of all the passengers—American and British—and of the master, officers and members of the crew, who lost their lives in this dreadful calamity.

Although there was such serious loss of life it is worthy of notice that none of the officers were saved, proving, without doubt, the bravery and unselfishness displayed by the master, officers and crew.

These were the facts of the case, and on the conclusion of the evidence, Mr. Mansel Jones, on behalf of the Board of Trade, put to the Court the following questions :—

1. Was the vessel in good and seaworthy condition when she left the Thames on the 13th October last, and was she sufficiently ballasted?

2. What number of compasses were on board; were they in good order and sufficient for the safe navigation of the vessel; when and by whom were they last adjusted, and by which compass was the vessel steered?

3. Was the vessel wired on the double-wire system, and could the compasses have been affected by the electric current?

4. Was the vessel supplied with the boats and life saving appliances required by the Statute, and were the boats so carried as to be at all times fit and ready for use?

5. Was the vessel supplied with lamps independently of the electric lamps and were they kept trimmed and ready for use, and accessible?

6. Was the vessel supplied with proper and sufficient signals of distress?

7. Was the vessel efficiently officered and manned?

8. Was the master in good health, and did he give proper personal attention to the navigation after leaving the Thames?

9. At what distance was the Eddystone lighthouse passed about 4.15 p.m. on the 14th October, and what was the course steered after passing the lighthouse?

10. Was a light seen and reported shortly after 6 p.m. and, if so, was. this St. Anthony's light? Were the Lizard lights seen, and, if not, why were they not seen?

11. Was a good and proper look-out kept?

12. What was the cause of the stranding of the vessel?

13. What were the circumstances in which so few distress signals and no lamps were exhibited after the stranding of the vessel?

14. What were the circumstances in which only one boat with passengers successfully left the vessel?

15. Was every possible effort made by the late master, officers, and crew to save life, and was good discipline maintained after the casualty?

16. Were prompt and proper measures taken by the coastguard at Coverack and by the coxswain of the lifeboat at Porthoustock to render assistance?

17. What were the circumstances in which the Porthoustock lifeboat did not rescue those in the rigging until about midnight on the 14th—15th October?

18. What were the circumstances in which the services of the Falmouth lifeboat were not requested until 9.15 p.m., the services of the Cadgwith lifeboat were not requested until 9.55 p.m., and the services of the Lizard lifeboat were not requested until 11.20 p.m. of the 14th October? Were the respective lifeboats promptly launched, and what were the circumstances in which they failed to rescue any of the passengers and crew?

19. What were the circumstances in which this casualty was attended with the loss of so many lives?

Mr. Pyke, Mr. Nelson, Mr. Cunningham Graham, and Mr. Mansel Jones then respectively addressed the Court, and judgment was given as follows :—

1. The vessel was in good and seaworthy condition when she left the Thames on the 13th October last, and she was sufficiently ballasted.

2. She had five compasses on board, not including boat compasses. One, the Standard, Lord Kelvin's patent, by which the vessel was steered, was on the upper bridge; one was in the wheel-house, and one aft.

They were in good order and sufficient for the safe navigation of the vessel. They were last adjusted by Mr. Charles Chappelle, of the firm of Messrs. Hughes and Son, Fenchurch Street, E.C., on the 5th October last.

3. She was wired on the double-wire system, and the dynamo being placed 100 ft. from the compasses, the Court is of opinion the compasses could not have been affected by the electric current.

4. The vessel was supplied with the boats and lifesaving appliances required by the Statute. They were so carried as to be at all times fit and ready for use; but the Court is strongly of opinion that a lifeboat should be swung out on each side of a passenger vessel when navigating the English Channel.

5. The vessel was supplied with lamps independently of the electric lamps. There were two sets of copper signal lamps, one set being kept trimmed and ready for use and accessible under ordinary circumstances. She had also other oil lamps for general use.

6. The vessel was supplied with proper and efficient signals of distress.

7. The vessel was efficiently officered and manned.

8. The master was in good health. Mr. Trevor, the ship's doctor, stated the master enjoyed very good health and that there was nothing in the world the matter with him. He also stated that about an hour before the casualty he had had a conversation with the master, when he expressed himself as very satisfied with the behaviour of the vessel. The master gave personal attention to the navigation after leaving the Thames.

9. The Court is of opinion the vessel passed the Eddystone lighthouse about 4.15 p.m. at not a greater distance than three miles, and that the course steered after passing the lighthouse was W. by N.

10. A light was seen and reported shortly after 6 p.m. and in the opinion of the Court it was St. Anthony's light. The Lizard lights were not seen on account of the vessel never having come within the arc illuminated by them.

11. There were two officers—the second and third—on the bridge an A.B. in the crow's nest, another A.B. forward; and the Court considers that a proper look-out was set, but is not prepared to say a proper look-out was kept.

12. Quartermaster August, who was at the helm when the vessel struck, was drowned. Quartermaster Butt, who took the helm from 4 to 6, stated that he received the course W. by N. from Quartermaster Blake, who was also drowned, and that he steered that course until. he was relieved at 6 by August, to whom he gave the same course. Both changes at the helm were made in the hearing of an officer in accordance with the usual. practice of the ship. Butt also stated that the captain looked in the binnacle about 5, and that the chief officer, who was in charge from 4 to 6, looked in the binnacle continually; and the Court is of opinion that the cause of the stranding of the vessel was that a wrong course—W. by N.—was steered after passing the Eddystone at 4.17 p.m.

13. The reason so few distress signals were discharged was that the rocket-socket was on the port side, and the vessel took a list of about 45 degrees to port within a few minutes after she struck, which made it very difficult to discharge them.

The reason the lamps were not exhibited was that the lamp-room was forward on the port side of the vessel, and that the ship was down by the head; and in consequence the lamp-room was inaccessible on account of it being under water.

14. The foremost boat on the port side—a wooden cutter—became jammed; the first lifeboat on the port side was launched and saved 24 persons.

An unsuccessful attempt was made to launch the other two lifeboats on that side; but from the great list to port and the heavy sea washing over that side, it was found impossible to do so.

On the starboard side efforts were made to launch the boats, but the heavy list prevented their being got out. The difficulty was increased by some of the passengers crowding into the boats, but the Court is of opinion the boats could not have been launched if no crowding had taken place.

15. Every possible effort appears to have been made by the late master, officers and crew to save life, and good discipline was maintained after the casualty.

16 and 17. Prompt and proper measures were taken by the coastguard at Coverack, and by the coxswain of the lifeboat at Porthoustock to render assistance. Hill, the coxswain of the Porthoustock lifeboat, was standing outside his stable door and saw the "Mohegan" apparently less than a mile from the shore; she altered her helm, and as she was running into danger he at once summoned his crew, and launched his boat at 7.25 p.m. He went in the direction of the Manacles, and on approaching them he heard cries in the water; then he fell in with a boat bottom up on which were two men, whom he took off. Then, hearing cries underneath the boat, he righted her and found Mrs. Compton Swift, another lady, and a child who was then dead.

He had to cut one of the thwarts to release Mrs. Swift, and he took her and the other lady into the boat; the latter died on shore shortly after being landed.

Mrs. Swift, who was rescued, gave at the inquiry a very lucid account of the "Mohegan's" proximity to the land and the Eddystone, and of her subsequent experiences.

Hill then burnt signals for further assistance from shore, and shortly after he fell in with the ship's lifeboat with 24 persons on board; he took them all into his boat, thinking the ship's boat, having a good deal of water in her, was not fit to carry them through the heavy surf and between the rocks, safely to shore. He landed the rescued persons at 10, and about 10.30 put off again and reached the wreck, which he found to be on the Manacles, and rescued 16 persons from the rigging and funnel.

When the lifeboat arrived at the wreck, the coxswain did not deem it safe to go down to it, for fear of his boat being damaged by the wreck, and let go her anchor as near as he could with safety. He could not venture to throw his loaded cane and line towards the wreck for fear of injuring some of the persons in the rigging.

Quartermaster John William Henry Juddery then swam from the wreck to the lifeboat, procured a line and swam back with it, and another line being drawn from the boat, 12 persons were hauled into the boat from the mizzen-rigging. The lifeboat subsequently took off four more persons from the main and jigger rigging and the funnel.

The rocks were searched but no other persons were found, and the lifeboat returned to Porthoustock.

18. The services of the Falmouth lifeboat were not requested until 9.15 p.m. because the Porthoustock lifeboat had gone out and it was not known on shore that further assistance was required until signals from the Porthoustock lifeboat for more help were seen about 9 p.m. The services of. the Cadgwith lifeboat were not requested until 9.55 p.m. because it is stationed at a further distance. from the Manacles, and because the Falmouth boat has a tug and the Cadgwith boat has not.

The services of the Lizard lifeboat were not requested until 11.20 p.m. because it is stationed at a much greater distance from the Manacles, is a smaller boat than any one of the other three, and in consequence of the ebb tide could not have reached the wreck until after the other boats. The boat at the Lizard is intended to serve only the coast and rocks immediately in its vicinity, and is practically never summoned to wrecks in the direction of the Manacles, that coast being well protected by three larger lifeboats.

The respective lifeboats were promptly launched; they failed to rescue any of the passengers and crew because there were no lights to indicate the position of the wreck, which caused much loss of time in searching for her; and because, before their arrival at the wreck, all the survivors on it had been taken off by the Porthoustock lifeboat.

One person was picked up by the "Penguin," the tug of the Falmouth lifeboat.

19. The deplorable loss of so many lives, amounting to 106, 51 only being saved, was in consequence of the vessel taking a very sudden and serious list to port, her going down in not more than a quarter of an hour from the time of striking, and of there being no light to indicate her position through the electric light having gone out.

The Court is strongly of opinion that where a vessel is lighted with electric light, she ought at night always to have lighted and in an easily accessible position, oil lamps, to take the place of the ship's lamps in case of failure of the electric light.

The Court wishes to express its great approbation of the conduct of Mr. Juddery, who at considerable personal risk swam from the wreck to the lifeboat, and swam back with a line, and materially aided in saving those in the mizzen-rigging.

The Court also wishes to speak with approval of the promptness and skill of the coxswain of the Porthoustock lifeboat, Mr. Hill, and his crew.

R. H. B. MARSHAM, Judge.

We concur.

 

A. RONALDSON,

 

 

J. H. HALLETT, C.E.,

Assessors.

 

RICHD. C. DYER,

 

The Court here inserts some extracts from the Sailing Directions for this coast, with notes bearing on the casualty.

The land generally between Rame Head and the Lizard is moderately high on or near the coast, being backed by still higher ground at more or less remote distances inland, and exhibits a variety of aspect to vessels in the offing as they vary their positions. The Gribben Head, westward of Fowey, is a remarkable object, having a beacon tower 84 feet high, its base being 250 feet above high water. Nearly midway between the Eddystone and the Lizard, the Dodman stands boldly out seaward, being a precipitous bluff, 363 feet above the sea, with a steep face towards the East, and is a very conspicuous landmark for the neighbourhood.

The "Mohegan." must, by the course steered and the distance run from the Eddystone, have been some eight or nine miles off this point about 5.30 p.m., when there was still good daylight, and it should have been distinctly visible at that time, the weather being then described as clear. The Lizard lights, or the Head, ought also to have been seen, but the evidence does not show that any directions were given to look out for them. The fact that the Lizard lights were not seen at the time they were lighted ought to have shown that the vessel was within the line of arc.

When the light was reported at 6.15 p.m. two points on the starboard bow three or four miles distant, it was probably St. Anthony's light, as the eourse and distance from the Eddystone would put her in that position.

It is high water full and change at the Lizard at 5 p.m.: springs rise 14 1/2 ft., and neaps 10 1/2 ft., and off the Manacles the stream runs westward from 1 to 1 1/2 knots, until nearly half flood by the shore.

Of the three lights bearing on the "Mohegan's" case, the Eddystone is a bright flashing light, visible on a clear night 17 miles; St. Anthony's is a revolving white light, with bright face every 20 seconds, visible 14 miles, and to a vessel approaching from the eastward, the light first opens out on a north-west bearing; the Lizard has two fixed white electric lights, distant from each other 74 yards, and are visible 21 miles. When in line from the eastward, they lead 3 3/4 miles southward of the Manacle Rocks.

Some questions arose as to the steel boats that were fitted; the Court desires to express its opinion as to the strength and quality of them. The two wooden boats that were on board were broken into matchwood, and, notwithstanding that the steel boats were battered about on the rocks, there was a hole in one only of them. This proves their efficiency and superiority over the wooden boats.

The Company have formulated instructions as to boat drill, and they have been satisfied that this should take place when the vessels are at sea, but, in the opinion of the Court, there is no reason why this should not be carried out on the crew signing on their articles, when their numbers and stations should be allotted them; and that boat and fire drill should be practised before the vessel leaves the dock. They do not consider it necessary that the boats should be lowered into the water for this purpose, but that the crew should all know their stations.

Extracts from printed instructions issued to captains and officers of the Atlantic Transport Company.

GENERAL.

All commanders and officers are specially requested to make themselves acquainted with the rules and regulations of the Company and adhere to them strictly.

CAPTAINS.

The captains are to remember that whilst they are expected to use every diligence to secure a speedy voyage, they must run no risk which by any possibility might result in accidents to their ships. They will ever bear in mind that the safety of property entrusted to their care is the ruling principle which should govern them in the navigation of their ships, and no supposed gain in expedition or saving of time on the voyage is to be purchased at the risk of accident.

The Board of Trade regulations as to the rule of the road, lights, signals, &c., must be carefully adhered to.

The use of the lead, even if it occasions delay by stopping the engines, is strictly enjoined on all commanders when nearing land, unless well-known landmarks and lights are distinctly visible, and in foggy or hazy weather this will be more necessary.

Strict discipline is to be maintained on board, and the captain must see that his authority is thoroughly respected by every officer and man in the ship. He should see that no opportunity is neglected to ascertain the errors in deviation, and the same noted in the compass book for comparison on the next voyage.

A day and night order book must be kept in which the course to be steered and all other necessary information is entered.

The captain must take the bridge in foggy weather, and when approaching or leaving land and keep it while in channel or crowded waters.

The arrangement for watches by junior officers and the proper working of the ship is left entirely to the captain.

It shall be the duty of the captain at least once on every round voyage to exercise his officers in a drill by lowering each of the boats overboard, assigning an officer and a certain number of the crew, and exercise them in abandoning the ship.

NOTE.—The managing owner gave evidence that their captains were not instructed to signal from Prawle Point, but under the exceptional circumstances, the "Mohegan" being a new ship, and what had happened on the previous voyage, the captain would be justified in running fairly close in order to signal, as he would know that they desired to know how things were going, and that was why he had reported "All well."

In addition to the general instructions the following circular letters were issued to their captains from time to time.

September 1st, 1894.

Captain Griffiths, s.s. "Manitoba."

SIR,

Please note that no passengers under any consideration are to be allowed on the bridge. This is by order of the President.

 

Yours,

 

 

(Signed)

R. ROBINSON,

 

 

Marine Superintendent.

February 20th, 1895.

Captain Griffiths, s.s. "Manitoba."

DEAR SIR,

Since the sad disaster to the s.s. "Elbe," it becomes a question of paying strict attention to the boats. Please, in order to meet any such emergency, either before leaving the dock, after leaving the dock, or before leaving Gravesend, to have all your boats hung to the davits ready for swinging out and keep them there until your steamer has cleared the Channel. Of course, in passing down Channel, you will quite understand you will be guided according to the weather.

On approaching the Channel on your return passage carry out the same operations. I take it for granted that your fittings and gear of your boats are in constant readiness.

 

(Signed)

R. ROBINSON,

 

 

Marine Superintendent.

July 22nd, 1896.

To the Captain, s.s. "Manitoba."

SIR,

As you are aware, we desire you to make good passages, but, above all, we desire you to make safe passages, and to secure the latter we will not allow any risks to be run, and no excuse will be accepted for running them.

 

(Signed)

A. F. WILLIAMS, Director,

 

 

Williams, Torrey & Field, Ltd.

August 4th, 1898.

To the Captains, s.s.

SIR,

Please note that at least once during each round voyage one of your boats is to be lowered into the water and manned. A note to this effect is to be inserted in the log-book. You are not to inform the officers which boat is to be lowered until the actual time of giving the order, and then you will select the boat yourself.—Yours,

 

(Signed)

R. M. ROBINSON,

 

 

Marine Superintendent.

List of the passengers of the "Mohegan" showing those who were saved and those lost:—

Mr. R. A. Baxter

Drowned.

Mr. James Blackey

do.

Mr. W. J. Bloomingdale

Saved.

Miss Bushnell

Drowned.

Mr. H. F. Cowan

do.

Miss H. M. Cowan

do.

Mrs. R. C. Crane

do.

Mr. Charles Duncan

do.

Mrs. Charles Duncan

do.

Miss Rosa Duncan

do.

Mrs. Fenton

do.

Mrs. J. P. Firing

do.

Miss Frazer

do.

Miss B. M. Firing

do.

Mr. B. Franklin Fuller

do.

Mr. C. Seymour George

do.

Mrs. L. S. Grandin

do.

Mrs. Grumbrecht

do.

Mr. A. H. Harrington

do.

Miss Hart

do.

Mr. John Hyslop

Saved.

Mr. Richard Kelly

do.

Mr. T. W. King

Drowned.

Mr. O'Rorke (Mr. King's valet)

Saved.

Mrs. T. W. King and maid (name not known).

Drowned.

Mr. Cordary

do.

Master R. King

Drowned.

Master W. King

do.

Mr. R. A. Kipling

do.

Mr. J. J. Le Lacheur

do.

Mrs. J. J. Le Lacheur

do.

Master Le Lacheur

do.

Mr. F. W. Lockwood

do.

Mr. L. M. Luke

do.

Mrs. L. M. Luke

do.

Miss E. Merryweather

do.

Mr. H. Morrison, Junr.

do.

Miss Katherine Noble

Saved.

Mr. D. J. O'Neill

Drowned.

Mr. F. W. Pemberton

Saved.

Mrs. F. W. Pemberton and

do.

Master F. R. Pemberton

do.

Master J. C. Pemberton

do.

Miss Maud Roudebush

do.

Miss Saunders

Drowned.

Miss Shepherd

do.

Mr. A. G. L. Smith

Saved.

Mrs. Compton Swift

do.

Miss L. H. Warner

Drowned.

Dr. Fallows

do.

Mrs. Weller

do.

List of the officers and crew of the "Mohegan," showing those who were saved and those lost.

NAME.

RATING.

 

R. Griffiths

Master

Drowned.

L. Couch

Chief officer

do.

E. Coles

Second officer

do.

W. Hindmarsh

Third officer

do.

S. Browning

Fourth officer

do.

A. H. Trevor

Doctor

Saved.

H. Pinfold

Carpenter

Drowned.

H. T. Dalton

Carpenter's mate

do.

J. Cruickshank

Boatswain

Saved.

W. Bradenburg

Boatswain's mate.

do.

T. Whitehead

A.B.

do.

T. Nichols

A.B.

do.

W. Daniels

A.B.

Drowned.

J. W. H. Juddery

A.B.

Saved

G. Woods

A.B.

do.

F. Butt

A.B.

do.

W. Moore

A.B.

do.

F. Huntley

A.B.

do.

P. Treptow

A.B.

Drowned.

G. August

A.B.

do.

L. A. Blake

A.B.

do.

G. Hillson

A.B.

Saved.

J. Molyneux

A.B.

Drowned.

J. Bennett

O.S.

do.

J. Macfarlane

O.S.

Saved.

R. McLaren

Chief engineer

Drowned.

E. R. Buck

Second engineer

do.

W. Ferguson

Auxiliary second engineer.

Saved.

J. Marshall

Third engineer

Drowned.

M. E. Gray

Fourth engineer

Saved.

J. C. Smith

Fifth engineer

do.

W. Kinley

Assistant engineer

Drowned.

A. Cross

Sixth engineer

do.

A. Warren

Donkeyman

Saved.

F. Nobas

Assistant do.

Drowned.

M. Chappell

Storekeeper

do.

J. Cotter

Greaser

do.

J. Adams

do.

Saved.

R. Watson

Water tender

do.

R. Mansell

do.

do.

R. Roach

Fireman

Drowned.

W. Bailey

do.

do.

M. Kavanagh

do.

Saved.

W. De Grouchy

do.

Drowned.

W. Hammond

do.

do.

J. Stubbs

do.

do.

G. Chaffey

do.

do.

A. Anderson

do.

Saved.

— Underwood

do.

Drowned.

R. Whitehead

do.

Saved.

J. Cleux .

do.

Drowned.

J. Trevaskis

do.

do.

J. Isherwood

do.

do.

T. Moore

do.

Saved.

G. W. Thurlow

do.

do.

V. Campbell

do.

Drowned.

J. Legg

do.

do.

E. Feehan

Fireman

Drowned.

J. Harris

do.

Saved.

J. Crawley

do.

Drowned.

J. Stott .

do.

do.

J. Smithers

do.

do.

J. McKechnie

Greaser

Saved.

E. Chapman

do.

Drowned.

R. Barrow

do.

Saved.

S. Murrell

do.

Drowned.

E. Sennington

Steward

do.

H. Hamper

do.

do.

Mrs. E. Bowles

Stewardess

do.

J. Edge

Chief cook

Saved.

A. McWhirter

Second cook

do.

H. Simmonds

Third cook

Drowned.

J. Wiggington

Ship's cook

Saved.

N. Yearlie

Baker .

Drowned.

H. Bourne

Scullion

do.

D. Robb .

Assist. steward

do.

C. Brownjohn

do.

do.

E. Fieldhouse

do.

do.

W. Barnes

do.

do.

F. Nicklin

do.

Saved.

H. Childs

do.

Drowned.

W. C. White

Storekeeper

do.

W. C. H. Gray

Steward

Saved.

P. Brown

do.

Drowned.

H. Beàvery

do.

do.

C. Wassell

do.

do.

E. Ainsworth

do.

do.

F. Cruickshank

Servant

do.

E. Dunnair

Steward

do.

W. Adams

Steward's boy

do.

G. Foster

Pantryman

do.

A. Stevens

do.

do.

Mrs. A. Pigott

Stewardess

Saved.

P. Waite

Printer

Drowned.

V. Rawlins

Servant

Saved.

F. Dunnair

Watchman

Drowned.

J. Toppin

Cattleman

do.

G. Maule

do.

Saved.

— Kemp

do.

do.

J. Ward

do.

do.

T. Mitchell

do.

do.

— McHugh

do.

Drowned.

G. Rainour

do.

do.

— Horne

On a/c Weir's Pumps

do.

(Issued in London by the Board of Trade on the 14th day of December, 1898.)

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY DARLING & SON, LTD., 1-3, GREAT ST. THOMAS APOSTLE, E.C. 1898.

1157—180—12/98 Wt 8 D & S 1

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